Although much hallucinogenic use exists in abnormal societies within Mexico, it is without a doubt a culture present in modern times as well. that cause different strains to produce markedly different effects, popular strains often being hybrids of both Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. There are far more hallucinogenic plants in existence than humans have discovered or put to use. Although Kava is not a hallucinogen, it is a euphoric and hypnotic narcotic. And my reward is to roll it up :D hehe. I will only be talking about three: Mimosa, Desmanthus, and Diplopterys. Over several millennia, various native plant species in South America have been used for their healing and psychoactive properties. The first plant mentioned by Boiteau (1967) is known in Malagasy (Imerina, Bezanozan and Sihanaka dialects) as tsilaky and is used as a psychoactive drug above all in the eastern part of Imerina (subprefectures of Manjakandriana and Anjozorobe), in the Bezanozano region and in the region east of Lake Alaotra. That makes sense, as the variety of foods and ingredients already available and used in the human diet is so large, it is possible to consume only known-foods and substances throughout one’s entire life, and still feel as though a decision is being made every day for each meal. Europe’s ancient times seem to dominantly employ hallucinogens in witchcraft and divination only. Powered by WordPress, Hallucinogenic and Psychoactive Plant Basics, geographical location of psychoactive plants, list of psychoactive plants around the world, native geographical region of psychoactive plants, Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon. There are psychoactives all around us. Psychoactive plants are plants that have a big effect on an individual’s mind. The reason I don't buy the plants (or weed) is because I actually want to search for them, it's giving me a ''challenge'' and it's pretty fun. Ayahuasca But, this psychoactive is not a hallucinogen. Speaking in the sense of botanicals being used as medicines, for religious or ceremonial purposes…or even just recreationally…even marijuana (one of the most commonly used and enjoyed drug on the planet) is considered “walking on the wild side.” Obviously it is much harder for one to explore the psychoactive, hallucinogenic, euphoric or otherwise spiritual properties of botanicals which seem questionable…so the less-known and less-used a substance is, the less likely a new user will partake in enjoying it (or trying it depending upon the trip that results). As far as actual use goes, more than 150 species have been known to be used in the Western Hemisphere. All three psychedelics and all three producing DMT. Hallucinogens are also in widespread commonplace use in abnormal South American societies, especially in religious ceremonies. • Diviner’s sage (Salvia divinorum; Lamiaceae) Mind … Papua is no stranger to consuming large amounts of hallucinogens. For example, there are many instances in ancient and even more modern Europe where Ergot (a parasitic fungus that feeds on rye) would accidently contaminate a flour mill, causing an entire town to get sick. The first plant mentioned by Boiteau (1967) is known in Malagasy (Imerina, Bezanozan and Sihanaka dialects) as tsilaky and is used as a psychoactive drug above all in the eastern part of Imerina (subprefectures of Manjakandriana and Anjozorobe), in the Bezanozano region and in the region east of Lake Alaotra. Someone would have to ingest them to make themselves, well, trip. Although the southern region … Europe and Asia (Eurasia) has a lot of hallucinogens which have been employed for hundreds, sometimes thousands of years. Cimora is used in similar fashion to Ayahuasca. Several world regions have historically used psychoactive cacti for their properties, particularly Indigenous peoples from Central and South America, such as in Mexico and the Andes region. 2. Africa also harbors the Kanna drug, donned a mysterious hallucinogen, though many people do not take enough, a strong enough strain or administer it correctly and thus it has a mixed history. Image: Hhmb. Most of the plants which contributed to this era of “plant magic” were members of the Nightshade family. A large proportion of these are found in South America and South Africa, which are both rich and diverse in flora, fish and animal life. Salvinorin A is the main psychoactive compound found in the leaves. Other instances of mass accidental poisoning of hallucinogenic plants exist as well, including a well-documented instance in the new settlement of Jamestown, Virginia, in which an entire colony consumed and were deathly sick from Jimsonweed (aka Jamestown weed, and Thorn Apple). While it may not be employed today, Nutmeg has been used for its narcotic-like effects in ancient India and Indonesia. Some of these plants included Henbane, Mandrake, Thorn Apple, and of course, Belladonna. There are far more hallucinogenic plants in existence than humans have discovered or put to use. Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. One example is Cebil (sometimes called Villca), a snuff created from the seeds of a plant very similar to the Yopo, which is popular in Argentina. • Alkaloids from bark • Traditionally used in Brasil, Peru, & Colombia. One of the most spiritually important and recreationally employed hallucinogen found throughout South America is the Ayahuasca. However, in the last decade, renewed interest has occurred in the study of psychoactive plants from southern Africa. Answer Save. Grown all over the world, cannabis (marijuana) is probably the most-widespread plant with psychoactive properties. Out of all of the regions in the world, Mexico provides the most abundant diversity of hallucinogens, both in use and native availability (within the confines of current research, historical experiences and folklore). There are dozens of species of Teonanacatl with hallucinogen principles. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants The most comprehensive guide to the botany, history, distribution, and cultivation of all known psychoactive plants including botanical taxonomy of the plants and fungi. Instead, the plant boasts mild mood-elevating properties and is traditionally used to quell hunger and thirst. Myrrh targets mu- and delta-opioid receptors (like opium), and frankincense contains dehydroabietic acid which works on GABA rece… The objective of the present study was to document the use of plants with possible psychoactive effects in rituals performed by the Krahô Indians, who live in the cerrado savannahs biome in the central region of Brazil. Favorite Answer. There are far more hallucinogenic plants in existence than humans have discovered or put to use. Mind-altering and psychoactive plants. Other drugs have an even longer history. Compounds in some plants can have an overwhelming effect on the central nervous system.Plants containing those compounds are thus known as mind-altering (active) or psychoactive plants. It is usually mixed other plants which contain DMT, or the full effects cannot be metabolized. "In the realm of psychoactive plants, Christian Rätsch is the world’s most knowledgeable person." AMANITAS. For this purpose (which includes commercial harvesting) cacti plants are specifically grown in the millions. Widely used by early Native Americans. DMT content varies between strains. Several world regions have historically used psychoactive cacti for their properties, particularly Indigenous peoples from Central and South America, such as in Mexico and the Andes region. Wormwood is a common ornamental plant in the north of the United States and in Canada. It can be found in common plants growing throughout North America including Bulbous canarygrass (Phalaris aquatica), an invasive weed-like grass which grows anywhere from lawns to cracks in the sidewalk. The Peyote cactus is that hallucinogen and possesses the most religious significance. Of the ‘chief spices' (literally ‘head spices’) listed in this paradisiacal garden from the Songs of Solomon, eight are identified and seven of them are known to tweak the brain. Ayahuasca. Of the many psychoactive plants in North America, some of the most important and those plants with some of the greatest significance, are hallucinogens. Illusions appear real. However, extraction of LSA from the seeds for human ingestion is illegal. For this purpose (which includes commercial harvesting) cacti plants are specifically grown in the millions. The psychoactive concoction is derived by mixing two plants, one of which activates the DMT in the other. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of psychoactive cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) He describes a region in Siberia, where cannabis was grown everywhere, and speaks about ayahuasca, first used by shamans in the Amazon. Surprisingly due to its size and strong ceremonial-based cultures, Africa seems to have the least amount of hallucinogenic plants native to the area. The psychoactive component of the plant comes from the chemical thujone and people sometimes … This finding may be proof of the plant’s use as a psychoactive specie by other groups in the Andean region of Ecuador. Kava-kava, or Piper methysticum, is native to the western Pacific and is in such widespread use in some tropical regions of the world that there are actual “Kava Bars” which have entirely replaced … psychoactive plants by southern African hunter-gatherers has to be the work of Marlene Dobkin de Rios. Although Kava is not a hallucinogen, it is a euphoric and hypnotic narcotic. Although the southern region of North America (upwards of Mexico) is rather lacking in hallucinogens, some species of Datura have been used, as well as the Red Bean and Mescal Bean; these plants, having vision-inducing properties, were most popular with Indian cultures in the region. Nearly all regions of the world (probably all of them, actually), have psychoactive plants growing to some extent in the terrain. Der religiöse Gebrauch psychoaktiver Pflanzen. Early history ; Peyote contain about 30 alkaloids with mescaline the major hallucinogen ; Mescal buttons ; 4 Mescaline 5 Possible mode of action. Aztecs considered peyote a sacred plant, they worshiped it, and their religion centered around this cactus. It does not mean that there are truly more or less hallucinogens in one hemisphere over another, but only that culture and societies in the Western Hemisphere have been more willing to encourage the use of hallucinogens for religion and recreation while the Eastern Hemisphere considered hallucinogens as properties of pure witchcraft. Some of them have been used entheogenically for millennia. Seit Tausenden von Jahren werden verschiedene psychoaktive (halluzinogene) Pflanzensubstanzen in den heiligen Ritualen und religiösen Umgebungen von Kulturen auf der ganzen Welt verwendet. New Guineans enjoy the rhizomes (subterranean stems including roots) of Maraba, which are eaten for their hallucinogenic properties; and they also enjoy mixtures of Ereriba leaves and Agara bark which induce hallucinations and dream-like visions (probably because Agara contains high quantities of DMT – a very strong hallucinogen naturally occurring in a large amount of botanicals and animals around the world). List of psychoactive plants - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia The psychoactive substance in Cannabis, THC, is unique in that it contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. A vine originally found in South Asia, but now grown worldwide, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, otherwise known as Elephant Creeper, has seeds with hallucinogenic properties. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain. Hallucinogens II Peyote (Mescaline) and Others; 2 Peyote - Lophophora williamsii. Kava-kava, or Piper methysticum, is native to the western Pacific and is in such widespread use in some tropical regions of the world that there are actual “Kava Bars” which have entirely replaced alcohol. Anonymous . Thorn Apple is Datura stramonium. Of all the plants on this list, the mind … Anthropological study has established that entheogens are used for religious, magical, shamanic, or spiritual purposes in many parts of the world. Eurasia also harbors the Fly Agaric mushrooms, first prominently enjoyed by tribes in Siberia and ancient India. The effects of the plant are attributed to the main psychoactive constituent salvinorin A. Salvia, also known as “sage of the diviners”, is native to the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, Mexico. Psychoactive Plants. Chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts provides an opportunity to study the use of psychoactive plants in the past and to better understand ancient botanical knowledge systems. Ibogiane is a psychedelic and a dissociative. In the West Indies, indigenous peoples used Cohoba as a snuff. He described a region in Siberia, where cannabis was grown everywhere, and spoke about ayahuasca, first used by shamans in the Amazon. Image: BotMultichillT. It’s legal to enjoy these plants for their aesthetic qualities, but extracting and consuming their potent high-inducing chemicals will mean breaking the law! During religious rituals, for centuries shamans and pagans used psychoactive plants for many different philosophical purposes. Some of the psychoactive plants, which are banned today by industrialized societies, were cannabis, opium, magic mushrooms, ibogaine, ephedra, mandragora, S. divinorum, etc. Jetzt bestellen! Angel’s Trumpet (Brugmansia arborea) Angel’s Trumpet is native to the Amazon and tropical regions of South America. Some of these plants included Henbane, Mandrake, Thorn Apple, and of course, Belladonna. Over in Peru and Bolivia, a cactus known as the San Pedro (or Aguacolla) is used to create a vision-inducing, hallucinogenic drink called Cimora. A. Peyote (Lophophora williamsii): A small gray-green cactus native to Texas and northern Mexico. NATIVE TO. In fact, the Andean culture implemented at least 6 species of the Brugmansias. Next to Mexico, South America harbors the second most hallucinogens in terms of variety and quantity. Psychoactive plants used in designer drugs as a threat to public health AGNIESZKA RONDZISTy1, KAROLINA DZIEKAN2*, ALEKSANDRA KOWALSKA2 1Department of Humanities in Medicine Pomeranian Medical University Chłapowskiego 11 70-103 Szczecin, Poland 2Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Institute of Natural Fibers and Medicinal Plants Kolejowa 2 62-064 Plewiska, … Chemical analysis of organic residues from this ancient bundle indicates that the ritual specialists in this region had extensive knowledge of and access to various plants with psychoactive properties. Their effects may be separated into hallucinogenic, stimulating, or depressing properties depending on the plant used and the present compounds, which are usually secondary … psychoactive plants is widely disseminated in publications and on the internet; where seeds, seedlings, and extracts are sold or distributed, sometimes at the margins of the ... botanical families, region and mode of traditional use, principal active components, and modern biomedical uses (see Appendix 1). How Can I Tell If a Plant is Psychoactive? North America, in the United States: the land of the Native American Indians and present-day territory of residual users of so many psychoactive plants that it would be difficult to count them all! Psychoaktive Pflanzen Magische Pilze Psychedelische Festival Raglan. M… ACACIA. Within the plant-induced visions and trances, the shaman was able to comprehend the spirit world and the real world and maintain balance between the two. Title: Psychoactive Plants 1 Psychoactive Plants. In terms of hallucinogens, Africa is most known for its Iboga root which contains the hallucinogenic substance Ibogaine. Yopo, Niopo). Powered by WordPress, Full Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon, Hallucinogenic and Psychoactive Plant Basics, Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon. The plant is also though to offer medicinal benefits and is sometimes used in that way. In a study regarding the use of psychoactive species in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, Kvist [ 41 ] reports that the Brugmansia spp. Also, the present data were compared with the data obtained during a review of the literature on the use of psychoactive plants by 25 Brazilian indigenous groups. Northern North America, including largely Canada, harbored Sweet Flag, a plant who’s roots were employed as a medicine and hallucinogen. The Botanical Range of Hallucinogenic and Euphoric Plants How Many Hallucinogenic Plants Are There? In a study regarding the use of psychoactive species in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, Kvist [ 41 ] reports that the Brugmansia spp. 3 Answers. Brugmansias (sometimes called Angel’s Trumpets), were commonly used by the Andean cultures and all throughout South America for their narcotic properties, producing scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine. Currently, certain universities and research firms are studying the medicinal effects of cannabis. There are a number of tribes which have used this plant to make a tea, or to be added to other beverages. Asia particularly employed heavy use of Datura, especially in Papua New Guinea. 1. Heterospathe uniformis is native to the obscure islands of Paama, Epi, Lopevi and Ambrym in Vanuatu, where its fruit and bark are in high demand as an aphrodisiac, stimulant and cure again.. A small perennial that forms upright stalks with oblong, serrated leaves and beautiful, star-shaped, white flowers. Look through our extensive list of annuals, perennials, roses, flower bulbs, shrubs, ornamental grasses, succulents, trees, … The Eastern Hemisphere boasts a little over 50 species. Both of the resinous gifts of the Magi, for example, are classed as tranquillizers today, though the label doesn’t do them justice. A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs. In a paper published almost twenty years ago (Dobkin de Rios 1986), she drew attention to the parallels between the trance states entered into by Ju/’hoãn shamans and those reported from drug-induced altered states of consciousness. Myrrh targets mu- and delta-opioid receptors (like opium), and frankincense contains dehydroabietic acid which works on GABA rece… Entheogens, Ethnobotanicals, Hallucinogens & Psychoactives. There is limited scientific evidence behind the folk-lore which has been established by stories repeated since ancient times. Beatriz Caiuby Labate & Sandra Lucia Goulart (eds.) plant species of cultural importance with little research conducted on the region’s potential psychoactive flora. --Ralph Metzner An entheogen is a psychoactive substance that induces alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior for the purposes of engendering spiritual development or otherwise in sacred contexts. Psychoactive plants are spread all over the globe and men or women have used them for centuries.. Psychoactive plants in Canada? Traditionally, users consume Salvia by chewing the fresh leaves or by drinking an infusion. Abstract. Australia. He described a region in Siberia, where cannabis was grown everywhere, and spoke about ayahuasca, first used by shamans in the Amazon. The chemical residues of at … Tag: list of psychoactive plants by region. THC is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis plants. Of the ‘chief spices' (literally ‘head spices’) listed in this paradisiacal garden from the Songs of Solomon, eight are identified and seven of them are known to tweak the brain. Marijuana is one of the most well-known plants used for their psychoactive purposes, specifically for recreational use. GENUS / SPECIES. There are many psychoactive plants from all around the world and they come in different shapes and sizes. Relevance. The plant decoction is murky to the eye and not so pleasing to the tongue, made from mashed ayahuasca vine and chacruna leaves (often with … sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador Chabaco Armijos*, Iuliana Cota and Silvia González Abstract Background: During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. The plant is actually used as an ingredient in absinthe (a spirit) and also is used as a flavoring in some wines and spirits. Find the perfect flowers and plants for your garden, patio or containers. 7 years ago. Our results indicate that this is the largest number of psychoactive compounds found in association with a single archaeological artifact from South America. The Morning Glory plant (Convolvulacea) is the most famous LSA-containing plant. Although there are a lot of drugs out there yet to be discovered, the ones which are well-employed and in use around the world, have generally been used for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Morning Glory seeds are still employed in southern Mexico today. However, Marijuana has reached a world-popularity in modern times and is enjoyed globally. Of the more than half-million of species of flora and foliage, roughly only a thousand are known or used for their hallucinogenic, euphoric or other […], Botanical Shaman 2020 . InThe Encyclopedia of Psychoactive PlantsChristian Rätsch details the botany, history, distribution, cultivation, and preparation and dosage of more than 400 psychoactive plants. In the West Indies, indigenous peoples used Cohoba as a snuff. Despite the fact that there are many different cacti in Mexico possessing hallucinogenic compounds, there is one which reigns the most supreme and is considered the most sacred. What Are the Safest Marijuana Alternatives? Ergot is a hallucinogen and creates visions, delusions, paranoia, insanity, gangrene and even death. No Comments | Hallucinogenic and Psychoactive Plant Basics. Known for its characteristic leaves, the plant is used in religious practices in India and Africa (and probably elsewhere) and is sometimes used illicitly in the United States and Europe, though its legal status is changing in many places. The psychoactive concoction is derived by mixing two plants, one of which activates the DMT in the other. Truthfully it is simply because it can be hard to identify a chemical that provides hallucinogenic properties in higher doses, when it is only consumed and found in very small trace elements in the plant. These are plants that are commonly found growing around the world, which are respected and procured for their psychoactive … Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used medically and recreationally. Caapi-pinima, aka Teltrapteris methystica Found growing: South America Turkestan tribes enjoy Lagochilus for its intoxicating effects. Both of the resinous gifts of the Magi, for example, are classed as tranquillizers today, though the label doesn’t do them justice. LSA, or lysergic acid amide, was a precursor to LSD, having a similar chemical structure, and yielding similar psychedelic effects. The Thorn Apple and Henbane are also well-used in Africa. Some of these plants included Henbane, Mandrake, Thorn Apple, and of course, Belladonna. Their effects may be separated into hallucinogenic, stimulating, or depressing properties depending on the plant used and the present compounds, which are usually secondary … In the same region, another hallucinogen called the mescal bean, which was used in a similar way to peyote, has been found in caves and rock shelters extending back to 9,000 years ago. Using psychoactive plants, shamans had the power to enter trances, combat evil spirits and disease, communicate with ancestors, prevent famine, and control weather (rain dances). There are hundreds of natural psychoactive plants that are found world-wide. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 2005. The species itself is a jungle vine from South America, which is … These plants range from the common to the extremely uncommon and include plants with a long history of use as well as those with little to no track record. 2. These plants range from the common to the extremely uncommon and include plants with a long history of use as well as those with little to no track record. Of the more than half-million of species of flora and foliage, roughly only a thousand are known or used for their hallucinogenic, euphoric or other psychoactive properties. For clarity and ease of reference, species Unfortunately not all hallucinations were expected or enjoyed. Can someone write me a list of psychoactive plants I can find (and not buy) in forests? The Aztecs recognized the Teonanacatl mushroom family for their intense hallucinogenic and vision-inducing properties. Geography and Psychoactive Plants. Psychoactive Plants. The Aztecs also placed great spiritual significance on Ololiuqui, or the seeds of the Morning Glory plant. Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), which as its name suggests grows in Hawaii, and Sleepy grass (Achnatherum Robustum), which is found in the Southwest U.S., also contain high levels of LSA. A close comparison in sacred value is the Teonanacatl mushroom to the Aztecs. Best Legal Plants Like Ecstasy (Safe and Natural MDMA Alternatives), Safest Legal Alternatives to Marijuana in 2020. Major Psychoactive Plants. 1. Hallucinogens: plants with substantial influence on perception of space, time, & emotions. COMMON NAME. What Are the Safest Marijuana Alternatives? Psychoactive Plants & Fungi Plants listed in this section are those which have been used by humans for their mind- or emotion-altering properties. Amanita muscaria. Cannabis is consumed so many ways, including extracts, lotions, tinctures, dry herb, dabs and oils, edibles and more. Some of the psychoactive plants are far more prominent and important than others. Psychoactive plants are plants, or preparations thereof, that upon ingestion induce psychotropic effects. Master Shaman Tip: It is important to note that a lot of poor experiences (or lack of experiences) when dabbling in well-known hallucinogens can be traced to having too weak of a substance, the wrong substance, or having improperly administered the substance. Psychoactive plants are very common in nature, and while cannabis isn’t known for much else besides its effects on the brain, many legal plants used for mundane purposes have little-known mind-altering properties — and they’re growing in parks, gardens, windowsills fields and forests across Colorado. As stated in a reference work: Psychoactive plants are plants that people ingest in the form of simple or complex preparations in order to affect the mind or alter the state of consciousness.. Psychoactivity may include sedative, stimulant, euphoric, deliriant, and hallucinogenic effects. Most of the plants which contributed to this era of “plant magic” were members of the Nightshade family. The reason I don't buy the plants (or weed) is because I actually want to search for them, it's giving me a ''challenge'' and it's pretty fun. Acacia spp. Amazon.de/Fashion: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. He discusses their ritual and medicinal usage, cultural artifacts made from these plants, and works of art that either represent or have been inspired by them. Hallucinogens: Plants and Substances With Hallucinatory Psychoactive Properties, Full Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon, What Psychoactive Drugs Were Used in Ancient Egypt. Compounds in some plants can have an overwhelming effect on the central nervous system.Plants containing those compounds are thus known as mind-altering (active) or psychoactive plants. Many popular tryptamines and their analogs all start out somewhere down the line from a plant growing somewhere. In fact, very few areas around the world lack in a prominent hallucinogen of cultural significance to the tribe, culture or area. Botanical Shaman 2020 . Small spineless barrel cactus ; Native to Mexico and southwest Texas ; 3 Peyote. The mild psychoactive is most abundantly used by the Khoe-San peoples, who are indigenous to the region. Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive plant in the mint family, endemic to the Sierra Mazateca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. This finding may be proof of the plant’s use as a psychoactive specie by other groups in the Andean region of Ecuador. This plant was identified as Lycopodium gnidioides L., a member of the Lycopodiaceae … It offers intensely transformational experiences, he reported, including remarkable healing visions and realizations. Additionally, man has become so accustom to relying upon well-known vegetation for nutrition and survival purposes, that it is easier to consume what is available than to try new things. In Peru, the oldest remains of the psychoactive San Pedro cactus date to 6,800-6,200 B.C. Like betel, kanna is most often chewed and spit out. Ayahuasca, also known as Iowaska, Natema, Pinde or Yage, is an entheogenic brew created from the Banisteriopsis caapi vine. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and its Applications. The plant, which can climb up to 31 feet, is entirely legal. In Chile, witch doctors and shaman use the Nightshade Latue to induce hallucinogenic visions. A tribe called the Bwiti in the Congo will slice the bulb of Kwashi and apply it to gentle lacerations on the scalp and body, allowing the juice to enter the bloodstream. Psychoactive substances are found in a number of medications as well as in alcohol, illegal and recreational drugs, and some plants and even animals. Peyote cactus is that hallucinogen and possesses the most religious significance America have been used entheogenically millennia... 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