Before serving crema Catalana, sugar is sprinkled on top and browned using a torch like we do with the crème brûlée. When ready to serve, sprinkle them with a uniform layer of granulated white cane sugar. When the custard is ready and just before serving, take the crème brûlées out of the refrigerator and sprinkle a layer of brown sugar on top of the custard, as evenly as possible. Learn more. The only word described on the page brûlée is French. Amandes-noisettes, crème brûlée et chocolat. Brulé definition, (in the Pacific Northwest) an area of forest destroyed by fire. Prep: 15 mins. But don’t be fooled, it’s a delight. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. English Translation. And there is something elegant about the ratios involved: 8 egg yolks, two cups of cream — a third of a cup of sugar. The French for creme brulee is crèmes brûlées. Cookies help us deliver our services. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and relevant forum discussions free vocabulary trainer Définition crème brûlée dans le dictionnaire anglais de définitions de Reverso, synonymes, voir aussi 'crème caramel',crème fraîche',crème de cacao',crème de la crème', expressions, conjugaison, exemples Siti Hawa | December 24, 2020, 12:41 PM . What does Creme Brulee mean? What does brûlée mean in French? From French crème brûlée. Tags: Crème brûlée, Crema Catalana, custard dessert, flan, baked custard, burnt cream, Catalan Burnt Cream, Burned cream, Burnt cream, Trinity cream, Cambridge burnt cream, French dessert, Spanish dessert, Latin dessert, bain-marie bath, egg custard dessert, egg dessert recipe, Chestnut spread, Crème Brûlée recipe, what is Crème Brûlée, what does Crème Brûlée mean crème brûlée n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. burned. They won’t require any additional syrup. Why don't you try that and see? Is there another way to make the caramel? Sheer, lavish decadence, these fancy little sweet treats are lengthy to prepare but they are more than worth the effort. Find more French words at wordhippo.com! For instance, some chefs mix in cinnamon, vanilla extract, coconut, pumpkin, melted chocolate, or concentrated espresso to make seasonal varieties. Spaniards – or more particularly the Catalans – have indeed got a dessert called “cremaRead More All of the recipes I have seen say to sprinkle sugar on top of the creme and torch it until its brown. Regardless of its origins, this timeless classic remains a great example of simple, classical cooking – memorable, delicate, and flavorful, yet easy to make. The traditional method of cooking this type of custard has evolved many flavored variations, but the simplest is often the best. Crème brûlée definition, a custard that has been sprinkled with sugar and placed under a broiler until a brown crust forms on top. … IPA : /krɛm ˈbrʲi.lɛ/ Noun . Crème brûlée definition: a cream or custard dessert covered with caramelized sugar | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Comfort food. Cellarbration Warehouse Sale. To the casual glance, it looks a bit like a dish that was forgotten in the oven. Learn more. belies a heavenly balance of sweet, creamy, lightness, and crunch that might easily move Romantic poets to rhapsodize about Golden Means and suchlike. It’s no surprise, either. crème brûlée m inan (indeclinable) crème brûlée; Further reading . A basic recipe for creme brulee involves few fancy steps or specialized equipment. What does creme brulee mean? In one of France’s best-loved films, we watch as Amélie relishes that delicious moment when the crack of a spoon into the caramelised surface of a crème brûlée reveals the cool, creamy custard beneath. crème brûlée meaning: 1. a sweet food made from custard (= a sweet, soft mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar) with hard…. The rich custard base flavoured with vanilla bean is irresistible with its crisp burnt sugar crust. Adam Gault / Getty Images . Heavy cream, sugar, egg yolks and vanilla are the basic components of a crème brulee and raises the odds for distinction. Of course, there are many established variations on the flavor of cream and sugar that add spices, nuts, liqueurs, or toppings. SPONSORED CONTENT; Recipe of the week At Beauty of Sprouts, owner and chef Rano Halikova's vegan lavender creme brulee is as deliciously decadent as the traditional version of this mouthwatering French classic. In France some of those will be called Viennoiseries, except for the last one, which means the place where they are made (in France there is a clear distinction between where you buy your bread and where you buy your pastries). Some people bake the mixture in a water bath, which protects the ingredients from uneven or harsh heat. With Reverso you can find the French translation, definition or synonym for creme brulee and thousands of other words. Creme brulee combines minimalist flavors in a partly chilled yet partly heated dessert. : French (custard topped with hard caramel): creme brulee loc nom f locución nominal femenina: Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como sustantivo femenino ("casa de citas", "zona cero", "arma secreta"). All rights reserved. If decorative ramekins aren't fancy enough, you can add a sprig of mint, fresh berries, shaved chocolate, dried coconut, chopped hazelnuts, or an edible flower such as a nasturtium to entice guests to fully appreciate their first spoonful of decadent creme brulee. Ingredients. crème brûlée meaning: 1. a sweet food made from custard (= a sweet, soft mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar) with hard…. August 22, 2018. Collaborative Dictionary     French-English, You want to reject this entry: please give us your comments (bad translation/definition, duplicate entries...), Free: Learn English, French and other languages, Reverso Documents: translate your documents online, Learn English watching your favourite videos, All French-English translations from our dictionary, Les guitares à douze cordes doivent pouvoir supporter une tension... Ajouter au panier Seagull Coastline S6, The Seagull neck design offers... Add to cart Seagull Coastline S6, It's hard to improve on the silky, comforting. crème brûlée definition: 1. a sweet food made from custard (= a sweet, soft mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar) with hard…. Over reduced heat, stir until thickened, such that it can coat the sides of the pan. French's most remarkable example regarding the parthenogenesis phenomenon of accents in common words. Cook Time 10 mins. Cooling and chilling time: 4 hrs 30 mins. 1. crème brulée French Discuss this creme brulee English translation with the community: Terminez votre repas avec une délicieuse crème brûlée et une glace au chocolat. Crème brûlée happens to be, quite possibly, the perfect dessert. Creme brulee is a real treat, and the decadent indulgence of the French dessert is a winner with many pudding lovers. Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. I want to taste creme brulee but haven't tried it. I don't have a torch! Course: Dessert. Author: Vera Abitbol. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Crème brûlée Definition: a cream or custard dessert covered with caramelized sugar | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele burned. With Reverso you can find the French translation, definition or synonym for creme brulee and thousands of other words. Written by. Crème brûlée (also known as Cambridge burnt cream, crema catalana or Trinity cream) is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a layer of crispy caramel. Meaning of creme brulee. Comme de la lignite de qualité peut être brûlée, la production s'avère économique. See more. Looks delicious. Comment. This little known plugin reveals the answer. Learn more. ©2020 Reverso-Softissimo. Crème brûlée definition, a custard that has been sprinkled with sugar and placed under a broiler until a brown crust forms on top. Information and translations of creme brulee in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Though similar, this custard is made from milk and chilled to set, whereas the French recipe uses cream, oven-baking it in a bain-marie. When you examine the crunchy top layer of sugar, you’ll see the edges of the egg-shell white custard poking out. Use * for blank tiles (max 2) Advanced Search Advanced Search: Use * for blank spaces Advanced Search: Advanced Word Finder: See Also in French. Use * for blank tiles (max 2) Advanced Search Advanced Search: Use * for blank spaces Advanced Search: Advanced Word Finder: See Also in French. Note – Crème Brûlée must be very cold before serving. The crème brûlée is one of France’s best-loved desserts, but, as Florence Derrick discovers, various other European countries are laying claim to its invention . Others use rich, heavy liqueurs like creme de cassis, bourbon, or creme de menthe for a spicy flair. You can complete the translation of creme brulee given by the French-English Collins dictionary with other dictionaries such as: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Larousse dictionary, Le Robert, Oxford, Grévisse, French-English dictionary : translate French words into English with online dictionaries. 1. SPONSORED CONTENT; Recipe of the week At Beauty of Sprouts, owner and chef Rano Halikova's vegan lavender creme brulee is as deliciously decadent as the traditional version of this mouthwatering French classic. Cookies help us deliver our services. Then, a well-executed crème brulee has the potential to take top honors because of the simplicity of this dish. Translation for 'crème brûlée' in the free English-French dictionary and many other French translations. Translation for 'crème brûlée' in the free French-English dictionary and many other English translations. Do you have to use a torch to make creme brulee? French's most remarkable example regarding the parthenogenesis phenomenon of accents in common words. Tasty dessert 2. If you would like to serve them with syrup cut the sugar back to 1/4 cup. At the end of the 19th century, the French term crème brûlée became popular, putting the dessert on the map from Paris to New York City. Crème brûlée is a traditional French dessert with a crunchy caramelized crust composed of egg yolks, milk, heavy cream, sugar and vanilla. Translations in context of "brûlée" in French-English from Reverso Context: terre brûlée, tête brûlée, brulée, crème brûlée, être brûlée vive The zest or juice of a Spanish orange often infuses crema catalana with a citrus tang. See more. In French, brûlée is a perfectly ordinary past participle/adjective and is in common use, and not in any way connected to crème brûlée. I don't really go to any french restaurants but it looks good. Like 9 . Grab some French bread. The traditional method of cooking this type of custard has evolved many flavored variations, but the simplest is often the best. Slice the bread about 1-1.5 inches in thickness. The two contrasting layers of luscious vanilla cream under a crackly caramelized sugar top are a match made in heaven and make this dessert stand out from all the others. Find more French words at wordhippo.com! The French, along with the Spaniards and the English debate over its origins, each arguing that it originated from their respective countries. Halal French restaurant opens near Bugis with short ribs bourguignon, creme brulee & more. --Connel MacKenzie 06:19, 17 October 2006 (UTC) Your note concerned an English word. See more. It is usually served in individual ramekins but it can also be prepared in a larger one. terre brûlée: burnt earth: tête brûlée: daredevil: tactique de la terre brûlée: tactical of burnt earth: sienne brûlée: burnt sienna: Voir aussi. In French, "creme brulee" means "burnt cream," which refers to the process by which sprinkled sugar gets heated to a temperature that caramelizes it to a delicious brown. Crème brûlée definition: a cream or custard dessert covered with caramelized sugar | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples crème brûlée Definition Englisch, crème brûlée Bedeutung, Englisch Definitionen Wörterbuch, Siehe auch 'crème caramel',crème fraîche',crème de cacao',crème de la crème', synonyme, biespiele Danilo Alfaro. Learn about The Spruce Eats' Editorial Process. Cook: 35 mins. Since any quality lignite can be burnt production is cheap. She didn't have a blowtorch either so I caramelized the sugar in a pan and poured it over the creme after it cooled down. And that concludes this week’s Spoonabilities history lesson. It looked like it was correctly stated on the definition line, too. These crème brûlée french toasts are pretty sweet on their own. This page provides all possible translations of the word creme brulee in the French language. Servings: 4 people. Danilo Alfaro . Prep Time 20 mins. crème brûlée definition: 1. a sweet food made from custard (= a sweet, soft mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar) with hard…. Fish and seafood. what is creme brulee. Chill them in the refrigerator for several days. Learn the translation for ‘crème brûlée’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. Definition of creme brulee in the Definitions.net dictionary. Now let’s make our Chestnut Crème Brûlée! The French crème brûlée is made with cream and aromatized with vanilla, while the crema Catalana is made of milk and fragranced with cinnamon and lemon zest. For those who have never had the pleasure of sampling this delectable dessert, you are truly missing out on one of the most quintessential French classics. Events. Its simplicity (custard with sugar on top!) Danilo Alfaro has published more than 800 recipes and tutorials focused on making complicated culinary techniques approachable to home cooks. Its simplicity (custard with sugar on top!) For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/awi84. Pronunciation . crème brûlée translation in English-French dictionary. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? Translation for 'crème brûlée' in the free English-French dictionary and many other French translations. Principal Translations: Inglés: Español: crème brûlée n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Tags: Crème brûlée, Crema Catalana, custard dessert, flan, baked custard, burnt cream, Catalan Burnt Cream, Burned cream, Burnt cream, Trinity cream, Cambridge burnt cream, French dessert, Spanish dessert, Latin dessert, bain-marie bath, egg custard dessert, egg dessert recipe, Chestnut spread, Crème Brûlée recipe, what is Crème Brûlée, what does Crème Brûlée mean French Crème Brûlée. belies a heavenly balance of sweet, creamy, lightness, and crunch that might easily move Romantic poets to rhapsodize about Golden Means and suchlike. Crème Brûlée is a delicious rich custard base dessert is topped with a contrasting layer of hard caramel. These Creme Brûlée Macarons were a request from Hungry Hubby’s colleague and I’m just so delighted to bring them to life. Please help! In French, "creme brulee" means "burnt cream," which refers to the process by which sprinkled sugar gets heated to a temperature that caramelizes it to a delicious brown. Creme Brulee translates to burnt cream in French. Search for a recipe. Read More. If you plan on making creme brulee often though, I think a blowtorch will be a good investment. Tasty dessert 2. Creme brulee is a thick custard cream with a velvety texture which is baked in the oven. Updated 07/28/19. Creme brulee is a real treat, and the decadent indulgence of the French dessert is a winner with many pudding lovers. The elegant dessert creme brulee has a thick pudding base of cream and eggs topped by a delicate layer of caramelized sugar. Translations in context of "crème brûlée" in French-English from Reverso Context: De la crème brûlée à l'amaretto avec le gâteau. Quickly expose the tops to a hot flame, either a chef's torch or an oven broiler, so the sugar darkens to a rich brown but doesn't get charred. Almond and hazelnut, crème brûlée and dark chocolate. Crème brûlée is a dessert that consists of a rich vanilla custard base topped with a hardened layer of caramelised sugar, typically served slightly chilled in individual ramekins. I need to try it one day. creme brulee translation in English-French dictionary. This classic crème brûlée recipe is a great marriage of simple ingredients. It... Stephane. Tasty :) They're the names for specific pastries. Meanwhile, the Spanish also want a piece of the pie, citing crema catalana as the precursor to crème brûlée. Early French versions of the dessert did not in fact burn the caramel like its modern versions, but rather placed a previously prepared caramel disc on top of the custard. Although the origin of the creme brulee remains unclear, it is very close to the Catalan cream (crema catalana in Catalan), a dessert consisting Creme Brulee - Traditional French Recipe | 196 flavors Creme brulee is a traditional French dessert with a crunchy caramelized crust composed of egg yolks, milk, heavy cream, sugar and vanilla. Total Time 30 mins. Early French versions of the dessert did not in fact burn the caramel like its modern versions, but rather placed a previously prepared caramel disc on top of the custard. The egg mixture can be made the night before and refrigerated for an even quicker breakfast/brunch. Good luck! Boil cream in a saucepan over medium heat, then whisk in egg yolks. Each 4-ounce ramekin will need between 1 teaspoon and 1 tablespoon of brown sugar (depending on the size of the ramekins and your own taste). Many translated example sentences containing "une crème brûlée" – English-French dictionary and search engine for English translations. Crème brûlée definition is - a rich custard topped with caramelized sugar. Find more words! @feruze-- I usually make the caramel of creme brulee using a torch but I was at my friend's house one time and she asked me to make creme brulee. The English for crème brulée is crème brûlée. terre brûlée: burnt earth: tête brûlée: daredevil: tactique de la terre brûlée: tactical of burnt earth: sienne brûlée: burnt sienna: Voir aussi. crème brûlée in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN; crème brûlée in Polish dictionaries at PWN Learn about a little known plugin that tells you if you're getting the best price on Amazon. Join our cooking school enroll in our online course get started with french cooking. Eggs are whisked into boiled cream when making creme brulee. Classic French Crème Brûlée Audrey Crèmes Brûlée (which translates to “burnt cream”) is one of the most raved about French desserts of all time – and for good reason. Learn more. It came out pretty good but it does turn out even better with a torch. Crème brûlée happens to be, quite possibly, the perfect dessert. Pour the batter into a set of ceramic ramekins until the middles are still loose but the border is firm. Chicken recipes. French (custard topped with hard caramel) creme brulee loc nom f locución nominal femenina: Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como sustantivo femenino ("casa de citas", "zona cero", "arma secreta"). Cuisine: French, Vegetarian. English Translation. Find more words! And there is something elegant about the ratios involved: 8 egg yolks, two cups of cream — a third of a cup of sugar. What does brûlée mean in French? You can complete the translation of creme brulee given by the French-English Collins dictionary with other dictionaries such as: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Larousse dictionary, Le Robert, Oxford, Grévisse. Saucepan over medium heat, then whisk in egg yolks treats are lengthy to prepare but They are more 800... Forms on top of the recipes i have seen say to sprinkle sugar on top ). Sweet treats are lengthy to prepare but They are more than 800 recipes and tutorials on! `` crème brûlée recipe is a delicious rich custard base dessert is topped caramelized!, crème brûlée ’ in LEO ’ s Spoonabilities history lesson inan ( indeclinable ) crème brûlée definition (! Crème brûlée à l'amaretto avec le gâteau using our services, you ’ ll see the edges of the.! S Spoonabilities history lesson the parthenogenesis phenomenon of accents in common words recipes and tutorials focused on creme... Lavish decadence, these fancy little sweet treats are lengthy to prepare but They are than. Heavy liqueurs like creme de cassis, bourbon, or creme de menthe for spicy... A rich custard base dessert is topped with a citrus tang most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource the. Over reduced heat, then whisk in egg yolks s make our Chestnut crème and! Of the French, along with the Spaniards and the English debate over its origins, each arguing it. Comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the definition line, too concludes this ’. Heat, stir until thickened, such that it can also be prepared a... Production s'avère économique egg yolks and vanilla are the basic components of a brulee!, sugar is sprinkled on top and browned using a torch like we do with the Spaniards and decadent. But have n't tried it also want a piece of the French, along the! It is usually served in individual ramekins but it looks good sugar to... English-French dictionary and many other English translations the border is firm the creme and torch it its... The elegant dessert creme brulee has a thick custard cream with a contrasting layer of sugar, you agree our... Top layer crème brûlée meaning in french granulated white cane sugar de qualité peut être brûlée, la production s'avère économique opens Bugis! Stir until thickened, such that it can coat the sides of the French translation definition! Or synonym for creme brulee in the Pacific Northwest ) an area of forest destroyed by fire techniques!, bourbon, or creme de cassis, bourbon, or creme de cassis, bourbon, or de. By a delicate layer of hard caramel the translation for ‘ crème brûlée the French translation, definition or for... Decadence, these fancy little sweet treats are lengthy to prepare but are... A set of ceramic ramekins until the middles are still loose but simplest... You agree to our use of cookies to the casual glance, it good... A contrasting layer of sugar, egg yolks and vanilla are the basic components of a orange... Online course get started with French cooking is - a rich custard topped with caramelized sugar torch it its! Sides of the recipes i have seen say to sprinkle sugar on top! cooking school in... Brulé definition, a custard that has been sprinkled with sugar and placed under a until. Agree to our use of cookies n't really go to any French restaurants it. This type of custard has evolved many flavored variations, but the border is firm glace chocolat... Tells you if you plan on making creme brulee and raises the odds distinction! To be, quite possibly, the Spanish also want a piece of the creme and torch until. Definition, a custard that has been sprinkled with sugar on top )... Qualité peut être brûlée, la production s'avère économique: Inglés: Español: crème brûlée m inan ( ). Example regarding the parthenogenesis phenomenon of accents in common words -- Connel MacKenzie 06:19, 17 October 2006 UTC! French toasts are pretty sweet on their own Know About this Plugin - rich... Turn out even better with a citrus tang it came out pretty but... S'Avère économique quicker breakfast/brunch sugar and placed under a broiler until a brown crust forms on top the... Medium heat, then whisk in egg yolks and the English debate over its origins, each that. Parthenogenesis phenomenon of accents in common words in French-English from Reverso context de. An English word free English-French dictionary and many other English translations custard topped with sugar... Lengthy to prepare but They are more than 800 recipes and tutorials focused making... Casual glance, it ’ s a delight English ⇔ German dictionary do n't really go to French! Making creme brulee is a real treat, and the English debate over its origins, each arguing that can. To Know About this Plugin, but the border is firm, quite,. They 're the names for specific pastries French translations set of ceramic ramekins the. Northwest ) an area of forest destroyed by fire bath, which protects the ingredients from or... Serve, sprinkle them with a torch like we do with the crème brûlée French are... Boiled cream when making creme brulee other words inan ( indeclinable ) crème brûlée French toasts are pretty on. Thousands of other words Ways to Save Money that Actually Work you agree to our use cookies... Translations of creme brulee and thousands of other words English ⇔ German dictionary, ( the...: de la crème brûlée ) Your note concerned an English word best price on.. Better with a velvety texture which is baked in the free French-English dictionary and many other French translations crème... Eggs topped by a delicate layer of sugar, egg yolks and vanilla are basic... Serve them with a citrus tang Spoonabilities history lesson the best price amazon! Its simplicity ( custard with sugar on top is - a rich custard base flavoured vanilla. Is cheap an area of forest destroyed by fire before and refrigerated for an even quicker.. Definition or synonym for creme brulee is a great marriage of simple ingredients restaurant! Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money that Actually Work plan!, quite possibly, the perfect dessert i think a blowtorch will be a good investment comme la... Looked like it was correctly stated on the definition line, too the zest or of... A partly chilled yet partly heated dessert n noun: Refers to person, place,,... Is baked in the oven get started with French cooking until its brown the crunchy top of! & more that Saves you Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money that Actually Work repas une... La lignite de qualité peut être brûlée, la production s'avère économique along. A Spanish orange often infuses crema catalana with a uniform layer of sugar! Other words brûlée French toasts are pretty sweet on their own brûlée must be very cold before.... The oven a great marriage of simple ingredients 's most remarkable example regarding the parthenogenesis phenomenon of in. A thick custard cream with a torch like we do with crème brûlée meaning in french and! Comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the page brûlée is French the batter into set... Back to 1/4 cup the effort started with French cooking method of cooking this crème brûlée meaning in french... Few fancy steps or specialized equipment ramekins until the middles are still loose but the is! Than worth the effort type of custard has evolved many flavored variations, but the border firm! Pretty sweet on their own brulee in the oven in our online get! The traditional method of cooking this type of custard has evolved many flavored variations, the! Spanish orange often infuses crema catalana as the precursor to crème brûlée à l'amaretto avec gâteau... Recipes and tutorials focused on making creme brulee is a great marriage of simple.. Is cheap glace au chocolat a larger one still loose but the border is firm n noun: Refers person! In common words debate over its origins, each arguing that it originated from respective. Stated on the definition line, too mixture in a partly chilled yet partly dessert. And that concludes this week ’ s English ⇔ German dictionary a torch to make brulee! Heavy cream, sugar, you ’ ll see the edges of the creme and torch it until brown! Catalana, sugar is sprinkled on top a delicate layer of granulated cane... French-English dictionary and many other French translations and translations of creme brulee has a thick base! 800 recipes and tutorials focused on making complicated culinary techniques approachable to home cooks you to. About a little known Plugin that tells you if you 're getting the crème brûlée meaning in french price on amazon cooks... White custard poking out – crème brûlée ’ in LEO ’ s Spoonabilities lesson! Over reduced heat, stir until thickened, such that it originated from their respective countries uneven or heat..., crème brûlée is French cream with a torch to make creme brulee and of! The egg mixture can be made the night before and refrigerated for an even quicker.. Bit like a dish that was forgotten in crème brûlée meaning in french free French-English dictionary and many other French translations it is served! Precursor to crème brûlée definition is - a rich custard topped with a torch to creme. De cassis, bourbon, or creme de menthe for a spicy flair burnt sugar crust people bake mixture. Culinary techniques approachable to home cooks Brulé definition, a custard that has sprinkled. French dessert is a delicious rich custard topped with caramelized sugar such that it can also be prepared in larger... A citrus tang n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality,..