Healers must use supernatural means to learn the cause and to help cure illness. According to Foster and Anderson, there are three basic theories about the causes of illness: personalistic, naturalistic, and emotionalistic. THEORIES OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS Theories about health and illness deal with the ideas people use to explain how to maintain a healthy state and why they become ill. Ideas about illness causation may include such ideas as breach of taboo, soul loss, germs, upset in the hot-cold balance of the body, or a weakening of the body's immune system. 3. Key Concepts 2.1. Disease definition is - a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms : sickness, malady. Health systems (Miller 2011) 3. Personalistic disease theory: Illness is due to the action of an agent such as a witch, sorcerer, or supernatural entity, e.g., ancestor spirit or ghost. Definition 1.1. part of applied anthropology (Gezen & Kottak 2014) 1.2. the study of interaction between cultural values and health issues 2. Health - overall sense of well being (WHO) 2.2. In some instances the affected mechanisms are clearly indicated, but in most cases a complex of mechanisms is disturbed, initially or sequentially, and precise definition of the pathogenesis of the ensuing disease is elusive. When these humors were in balance, health prevailed; when they were out of balance or vitiated in some way, disease took over. When identifying a theory or model to guide health promotion or disease prevention programs, it is important to consider a range of factors, such as the specific health problem being addressed, the population(s) being served, and the contexts within … In a fundamental sense, therefore, disease represents the consequences of a breakdown of the homeostatic control mechanisms. Emotionalistic disease theory: Illness is due to a negative emotional experience. 1. Even the most general medical theory, the germ theory of disease, does not constitute a world view, and it is not evident what in medical science constitutes an exemplar. He also adds a fourth alternative, which he calls eliminativist, arguing for replacing the notion of disease with successor notions tied more closely to the science. Personalistic disease theory blame illness on agents, such as sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits. 2. Emotionalistic disease theory: Illness is due to a negative emotional experience. Infectious diseases generally do not have an adaptive function for humans like the examples above, but many infectious diseases are influenced by human cultural systems. The dominant theory of Hippocrates and his successors was that of the four "humors": black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Cognitive theory suggests that once an individual has experienced the negative thinking associated with anxiety and depression, there is an increased risk that he or she will develop maladaptive cognitive schemas, which, with repetition, can become entrenched (Beck, 1995). Healers must use supernatural means to learn the cause and to help cure illness. 1. Stegenga (2018, p.23) calls such a theory a hybrid account, as it argues both that "there is a constitutive causal basis of disease and a normative basis of disease." 1. Personalistic disease theory: Illness is due to the action of an agent such as a witch, sorcerer, or supernatural entity, e.g., ancestor spirit or ghost. Kuhn had some important insights about scientific theories as a part of conceptual systems 50 P. Thagard. How to use disease in a sentence. For many Disease - objective condition 2.3. 2. Illness - subjective feeling 2.4. Theory …