Nerve, in anatomy, a glistening white cordlike bundle of fibres, surrounded by a sheath, that connects the nervous system with other parts of the body. Doctors once believed this post-amputation phenomenon was a psychological problem, but experts now recognize that these real sensations originate in the spinal cord and brain.Most people who've had a limb removed report that it sometimes feels as if the amputated limb is still there. Supercell clusters. They influence mood, muscle movement, heart rate, and many other functions. Privacy Policy - Terms of Service. These include medications such as Elavil®, Tofranil®, nortriptyline or … Phantom pain is pain that feels like it's coming from a body part that's no longer there. Tricyclic anti-depressants. Medical Definition of Optic nerve. Terms in this set (50) ... make up the optical nerve. Learn more here. The olfactory nerve is the first cranial nerve. A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Anatomy of the Auditory System. The process of converting physical energy into activity in the nervous system is known in sensory psychology as transduction. All material within this site is the property of AlleyDog.com. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; Olfactory nerve: The nerve that carries impulses for the sense of smell from the nose to the brain. Help us get better. See more. Cytoplasmic processes join the nerve cells (neurons) of nerve nets. While neurons have a lot in common with other types of cells, they’re structurally and functionally unique. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. It houses the nerve centers responsible for coordinating sensory and motor systems in the body. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are traditionally abbreviated by the corresponding Roman numerals. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; Optic nerve: The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity, or brain plasticity, is the ability of neural networks in the brain to change through growth and reorganization. It is comprised of two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body. Repolarization definition is - restoration of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the cell membrane following depolarization. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, send and receive signals from your brain. Transduction takes place at the receptors and involves several steps. Information comes into one end of the cell (the Dendrites) and then goes out the other end (the Axon) so that it can be passed on to another cell. The outer ear includes the pinna, which is the visible part of the ear that protrudes from our heads, the auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane, or eardrum.The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles, which are named the malleus (or hammer), incus (or anvil), and the stapes (or stirrup). This lesson defines and explains what nerves are as well as associated terminology: neurons, receptors, impulse, stimulus, ascending and descending nerve tracts, ganglion, and plexus. Peripheral neuropathy, a result of damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves), often causes weakness, numbness and pain, usually in your hands and feet. nervous system synonyms, nervous system pronunciation, nervous system translation, English dictionary definition of nervous system. Serial processing. Definition: What are Nerve Cells? Nerve impulse definition is - the progressive physicochemical change in the membrane of a nerve fiber that follows stimulation and serves to transmit a record of sensation from a receptor or an instruction to act to an effector —called also nervous impulse. Sequential processing by two or more processing units. The cerebrum, or the top portion for the brain, is the seat of higher-level thought. The optic nerve carries the impulses formed by the retina, the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye and senses light and creates impulses. Psychology definition for Nerves in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Definition cells connected to the rods and cones that are activated by the neural signals they producel in turn, these activate ganglion cells that converge to form the optic nerve. AP Psychology Unit 4: Sensation and Perception Extra Definitions. They are numbered according to where their nucleilie in the brain stem, e.g. Consequently, the fibers are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes rather than the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. The ear can be separated into multiple sections. Get the word of the day delivered to your inbox, © 1998-, AlleyDog.com. is a term used to describe a collection of fibres which are found outside the central nervous system, typically sheathed in an insulating material, such as myelin forming cordlike structures. Clusters of cells that respond to more complex patterns of visual information. Similarly, the optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater) rather than the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium foun… Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. Psychology Definition of OPTIC NERVE: the second cranial nerve, that transports the axons of retinal ganglion cells and continues from the retina on to the optic chiasm. Tinel’s sign is a diagnostic test in which your doctor taps on your nerve in … Habituation is a form of non-associative learning in which an innate (non-reinforced) response to a stimulus decreases after repeated or prolonged presentations of that stimulus. Nerve definition, one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body. Nerves are the smallest cells in the body and are responsible for carrying information around your body - the information they carry is in the form of electrical impulses. Overview. This material may not be reprinted or copied for any reason without the express written consent of AlleyDog.com. Term home / medterms medical dictionary a-z list / olfactory nerve definition Medical Definition of Olfactory nerve. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Define nervous system. NERVE: "There are millions of individual nerves in the human body which support the, Cite this page: N., Pam M.S., "NERVE," in, How to Reduce Swelling (Edema) Quickly after Pregnancy, Intelligence Across the African-American and Latino Cultures, Counseling Children and Adolescents on Death. In cnidarians the neurons are joined to epithelial receptors and to contractile cells. Help us get better. There are different types of neuron, from motor to sensory and reflex neurons. In humans 12 pairs are attached to the brain and 31 pairs to the spinal cord. Psychology Definition of NERVE: is a term used to describe a collection of fibres which are found outside the central nervous system, typically sheathed in an insulating material, such Neurons communicate with each other as well as with other cells through electric signals (nerve impulses), which in turn allows effector organs to respond to the appropriate stimuli. Myelin sheaths are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells. The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. It can also affect other areas of your body.Your peripheral nervous system sends information from your brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) to the rest of your body. Cranial Nerve III (the Oculomotor nerve) leaves the brainstem at a higher position than Cranial nerve XII, whose origin is located more caudally (lower) than the other cranial nerves. Activation (firing) of the neuron takes place when the neuron is stimulated by pressure, heat, light, or … The function of a neuron is to transmit information within the nervous system. Ulnar nerve weakness may cause you to be unable to hold on to the paper as it is pulled from you or may result in flexion of your thumb as you hold onto the paper, compensating for your weakness. Neurons are typically composed of a soma, or cell body, a dendritic tree and an axon. This process happens over and over to carry the information all around the body. See more. Neural transmission occurs when a neuron is activated, or fired (sends out an electrical impulse). Auditory nerve definition, either one of the eighth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the organs of hearing and from the semicircular canals to the brain. The brain is found in the cranial cavity and consists of the cerebrum and cerebellum. In The nerves conduct impulses toward or away from the central nervous mechanism. nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement Parallel processing the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Commonly referred to Nerve net, primitive nerve arrangement forming the entire nervous system of many cnidarians and a part of more advanced nervous systems. Essentially, nerve cells, also known as a neurons, are the active component of the nervous system. 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