Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections.  The flak detachment with 88s proved accurate and versatile in combat against mainly land targets, the high muzzle velocity and large caliber making it an excellent long-range anti-vehicle and anti-bunker weapon. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. 3 types of markings included, and decals are included to depict uniform insignias. In informal use, the guns were universally known as the Acht-acht ("eight-eight") by Germans and the "eighty-eight" by the Allies. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. , By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. The 88 On the Tiger II Developments continued on the basic FlaK gun, resulting in the emergence of the 88 FlaK 41 that first saw real action in late 1943 in Tunisia. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired.  Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. About the Model High-quality 1/35 scale assembly kit of the German 88mm Flak 36 in the service in North African theatre. 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel (2014). University Press of Kansas.  Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. When German “Condor Legion” troops, supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, came under tank attack they turned their anti-aircraft guns on the Republican tanks. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact. 8.8cm Flak. Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. Compared to other artillery types, German industry built for example, 570 heavy (caliber 88–128 mm) flak guns, 1,020 field artillery pieces (caliber 75–210 mm), and 1,300 tank guns, anti-tank guns, plus self-propelled guns in December 1943. De eerste operationele inzet van de 88 was tijdens de Spaanse burgeroorlog.Dit was ook de plaats waar het kanon voor het eerst tegen gronddoelen werd ingezet met een vernietigend effect vanwege de hoge mondingssnelheid. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.. Bundesarchive photo. However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.. [N 3]. The 88 was typically towed by a half-track (Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11) with seats for the ten-man crew and some ammunition. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. One 76 mm hole in outrigger. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types.  The use of the 88 mm in direct support of the infantry brought the gun crews in close proximity to the enemy and made the crews susceptible to infantry fire. The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. its weight was seven tonnes.  By the beginning of World War II the Luftwaffe's anti-aircraft artillery employed 6,700 light (2 cm and 3.7 cm) and 2,628 heavy flak guns.  Improvements in reloading raised the firing rate, with 20 to 25 rounds a minute being quoted. 8 heavy tractor. Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8.8 cm gun, which was further developed into the anti-tank and tank destroyer 8.8 cm PaK 43 gun used for the Elefant and Jagdpanther, and turret-mounted 8.8 cm KwK 43 heavy tank gun of the Tiger II. It appears as though the T-34(r) mit 8.8… The designers started again, using 88 mm caliber. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. In 1937, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River. Operation Barbarossa: the Complete Organisational and Statistical Analysis, and Military Simulation Volume IIB. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray.  While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. Lulu Publishing. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. At the end of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. “Small plane, big sky,” say the air defense gunners. They were captured by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Sino-Japanese War. A mere two flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. The first deliveries were made in March 1943 and, as of August 1944, only 157 were fielded; with 318 in January 1945. Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. These shields could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well. Nevertheless, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun together with Bofors of Sweden. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. For direct fire against ground targets, each gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. Because the Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons, the “88” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden. Gander, Terry. This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. By armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. Mike Markowitz  The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. Over 21 000 of these 88 mm guns were built. © 2020 Defense Media Network. 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Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. Allied diplomacy eventually cut off the German supply of tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. The original design was a 75 mm model. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. This gun used the same size 88 x 571R mm cartridge employed by the Flak 18/36/37. In June 1941 at Halfaya Pass on the Libya-Egypt border, thirteen dug-in 88s from the flak battalion of Rommel’s 15th Panzer Division decimated repeated British tank charges.  The gun had nickname Rämäpää ("Reckless") after the manufacturer's initials RMB. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. By the 1930s, two solutions evolved: light automatic AA, firing small (20 to 57mm) shells at a high rate, and medium-to-heavy AA (75 to 128mm) firing explosive shells time-fused to detonate at the predicted point, filling the sky with shrapnel. The gun had a semi-automatic Krupp horizontal sliding-wedge breech to … Armor-piercing shells with tracer and small base-fused bursting charge were used against tanks. Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. Hitting aircraft in flight with a projectile is a very difficult technical problem. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. The 88 FlaK 41used an 858mm long cartridge, significantly longer than the cartridge used by its predecessors. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition.  Its successful use as an improvised anti-tank gun led to the development of a tank gun based upon it: the 8.8 cm KwK 36, with the "KwK" abbreviation standing for Kampfwagen-Kanone (literally "battle vehicle cannon", or "fighting vehicle cannon"), meant to be placed in a gun turret as the tank's primary armament. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. Its performance was said to be comparable to the 12,8 cm Flak, with a lower silhouette than its predecessor and an increased firing rate (up to 25 rounds per minute). pp 293. By Donald Nijboer. " It featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. Penetration of the Pzgr. There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. In early 1937 in the fighting around Malaga, a battery of 88 mm guns was assigned to support an infantry brigade. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. Type: medium anti-aircraft gun, but often used as anti-tank or field gun. The Type 99 88 mm AA gun (九九式八糎高射砲, Kyūkyū-shiki hassenchi Koshahō) was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.The Type 99's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2599 in the Japanese imperial year … History: One of the most famous weapons used by the Germans in World War II was the Flugabwehrkanoneor Flak for short. It entered production in Germany in 1933 and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer. The word means ‘aircraft defense canon’. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn, and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers. In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers. 12.8 cm FlaK 40; 12.8 cm Flakzwilling 40/2 The 12.8 cm Flak 40 ordnance on a static dual mounting with a total weight of 26 tonnes, capable of firing 20 rounds per minute. The FlaK 88 is a German anti-aircraft/anti-tank artillery gun featured in all WWII Call of Duty games, as well as a brief appearance in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. The spoken version was. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. 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